Prostate cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men, responsible for over 375,000 deaths in 2020. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to improve outcomes. Cannabinoids, chemical components of the cannabis plant, are a possible solution. Preclinical evidence demonstrates that cannabinoids can modulate several cancer hallmarks of many tumor types. However, the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in prostate cancer has not yet been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative and anti-invasive properties of cannabidiol (CBD) in prostate cancer cells in vitro. CBD inhibited cell viability and proliferation, accompanied by reduced expression of key cell cycle proteins, specifically cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4, and CDK1, and inhibition of AKT phosphorylation. The effects of CBD on cell viability were not blocked by cannabinoid receptor antagonists, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel blocker, or an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55, suggesting that CBD acts independently of these targets in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, CBD reduced the invasiveness of highly metastatic PC-3 cells and increased protein expression of E-cadherin. The ability of CBD to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness suggests that CBD may have potential as a future chemotherapeutic agent.
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